Baker, H.K., Hankins, D.C. and Shurin, J.B., 2021. Introgressive hybridization erodes morphological divergence between lentic and lotic habitats in an endangered minnow. Ecology and Evolution, 11:13593-13600.
Markel, R.W.* and J.B. Shurin. Contrasting effects of coastal upwelling on growth and recruitment of nearshore Pacific rockfish (Genus Sebastes). 2020. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 77: 950–962.
Pomati, F., J.B. Shurin, K.H. Andersen, C. Tellenbach, and A.D. Barton. Interacting temperature, nutrients and zooplankton grazing control phytoplankton size-abundance relationships in eight Swiss lakes. 2020. Frontiers in Microbiology 10:3155.
Shurin, J.B., N. Aranguren Riaño, D. Echeverri Lopez, N.T. Jones, D. Duque Negro, O. Laverde-R., A. Neu and A. Pedroza Ramos. 2020. Ecosystem effects of the world’s largest invasive animal. Ecology 101:e02991.
Schulhof, M.A.*, J.B. Shurin, S.A.J. Declerck, D.B. Van de Waal. 2019. Phytoplankton growth and stoichiometric responses to warming, nutrient addition and grazing depend on lake productivity and cell size. Global Change Biology 25: 2751–2762.
Cavalheri, H.B.*, C.C. Symons*, N.T. Jones, M.A. Schulhof* and J.B. Shurin. 2019. Rapid evolution of thermal plasticity in mountain lake Daphnia populations. Oikos 128: 692-700.
Symons, C.C.*, M.A. Schulhof*, H.B. Cavalheri* and J.B. Shurin. 2019. Antagonistic effects of temperature and allochthony on fish growth in California mountain lakes. Oecologia 189: 231-241.
Cavalheri, H.B.*, N.T. Jones, D. Felix*, J. Leong* and J.B. Shurin. 2018. Seasonal variation in thermal plasticity of an alpine lake Daphnia population. Evolutionary Ecology Research 19: 679-694.
Mandal, S., R. Abbott Wilkins* and J.B. Shurin. 2018. Compensatory grazing by Daphnia generates a tradeoff between top-down and bottom-up effects across phytoplankton taxa. Ecosphere 9: e02537.
Hammill, E., C.P. Hawkins*, H.S. Greig, P. Kratina, J.B. Shurin and T.B. Atwood. 2018. Landscape heterogeneity strengthens the relationship between β-diversity and ecosystem function. Ecology 99: 2467-2475.
Aranguren-Riaño, N.J., J.B. Shurin, J.B., A. Pedroza-Ramos, C.L. Muñoz-López, R. López & O. Cely. Sources of nutrients behind recent eutrophication of Lago de Tota, a high mountain Andean lake. 2018. Aquatic Sciences 80: 39.
Mandal, S., J.B. Shurin, R.A. Efroymson and T.J. Mathews. 2018. Functional divergence in nitrogen uptake rates explains diversity-productivity relationship in microalgal communities. Ecosphere, e02228.
Aranguren-Riaño, N.J., Guisande, C., J.B. Shurin, Jones, N.T., Barreiro, A. and S.R Duque. 2018. Amino acid composition reveals functional diversity of zooplankton in tropical lakes related to geography, taxonomy and productivity. Oecologia 187: 719-730.
Mandal, S., J.B. Shurin, R.A. Efroymson and T.J. Mathews. 2018. Heterogeneity in nitrogen sources enhances productivity and nutrient use efficiency in algal polycultures. Environmental Science and Technology 52: 3769-3776.
Wu, Y., F. Wang, X. Xiao, J. Liu, C Wu, H. Chen, P. Kerr and J.B. Shurin. 2017. Seasonal changes in phosphorus competition and allelopathy of a benthic microbial assembly facilitate prevention of cyanobacterial blooms. Environmental Microbiology 19:2483-2494.
Noto, A.E.* and J.B. Shurin. 2017. Interactions among salt marsh plants vary geographically but not latitudinally along the California coast. Ecology and Evolution 7:6549–6558.
Noto, A.E.* and J.B. Shurin. 2017. Mean conditions predict salt marsh plant community diversity and stability better than environmental variability. Oikos 126: 1308-1318.
Szyjka, S.J., S. Mandal, N.G. Schoepp*, B.M. Tyler, C.B. Yohn, Y.S. Poon, S. Villareal*, M.D. Burkart, J.B. Shurin and S.P. Mayfield. 2017. Evaluation of phenotype stability and ecological risk of genetically modified algae in open pond production. Algal Research-Biomass Biofuels and Bioproducts, 24: 378-386.
Haggarty, D.R.*, K.E. Lotterhos, and J.B. Shurin. 2017. Young-of-the-year recruitment does not predict the abundance of older age classes in Black Rockfish in Barkley Sound, British Columbia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 574: 113-126.
Noto, A.E.* and J.B. Shurin. 2017. Sea-level rise leads to decreased salt marsh plant diversity through stronger competition in Mediterranean-climate marshes. PLoS ONE e0169056.
Shurin, J.B., M.D. Burkart, S.P. Mayfield and V.H. Smith. 2016. Recent progress and future challenges in algal biofuel production. F1000Research 5: 2434.
Newby, D.T., T.A. Mathews, R.C. Pate, M.H. Huesemann, T.W. Lane, B.D. Wahlen, S. Mandal, R.K. Engler, K.P. Feris, and J.B. Shurin. 2016. Assessing the potential of polyculture to accelerate algal biofuel production. Algal Research-Biomass Biofuels and Bioproducts 19: 264-277.
Haggarty, D.R.*, S.J.D. Martel and J.B. Shurin. 2016. Lack of recreational fishing compliance may compromise effectiveness of Rockfish Conservation Areas in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 73: 1587–1598.
Haggarty, D.R.*, J.B. Shurin and K.L. Yamanaka. 2016. Assessing Population Recovery Inside British Columbia’s Rockfish Conservation Areas with a Remotely Operated Vehicle. Fisheries Research 183: 165-179.
Symons, C.C.* and J.B. Shurin. 2016. Temperature constrains lake community and ecosystem responses to introduced predators. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B 283: 20160825. *This paper won the 2017 Exceptional Promise in Graduate Research Award from the Ecological Society of America Aquatic Section.
Beyter, D.*, P. Tang, S. Becker, T. Hoang, D. Bilgin, Y.W. Lim, T.C. Peterson, S.P. Mayfield, F. Haerizadeh, J.B. Shurin, V. Bafna, and R. McBride. 2016. Diversity, productivity and stability of an industrial microbial ecosystem. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 82: 2494-2505.
Noto, A.E.* and J.B.Shurin. 2016. Population variation affects interactions between two California salt marsh plant species more than precipitation. Oecologia, 180: 499-506.
Atwood, T. B*., Hammill, E., Kratina, P., Greig, H. S., Shurin, J. B., Richardson, J. S. Warming alters food web-driven changes in the CO2 flux of experimental pond ecosystems. 2015. Biology Letters 11: 20150785.
Adamczyk, E.M.* and J.B. Shurin. 2015. Seasonal changes in plankton food web structure and carbon dioxide flux from Southern California reservoirs. PLoS ONE 10: e0140464.
Noto, A.E.* and J.B.Shurin. Population variation affects interactions between two California salt marsh plant species more than precipitation. Oecologia, in press.
Smith, V.H., R.C. McBride, J.B. Shurin, J.D. Bever, T.E. Crews, G.D. Tilman. Crop diversification can contribute to disease risk control in sustainable biofuels production. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, in press.
Markel, R.W.* and J.B. Shurin. Indirect effects of sea otters on rockfish (Sebastes spp.) in giant kelp forests. Ecology, in press.
Hong, B.C.* and J.B. Shurin. 2015. Latitudinal variation in the response of tidepool copepods to mean and daily range in temperature. Ecology 96: 2348–2359.
Clasen, J.L. and J.B. Shurin. 2015. Kelp forest size alters microbial community structure and function on Vancouver Island, Canada. Ecology 96: 862-872.
DeLong, J.P., B. Gilbert, J.B. Shurin, V. Savage, B.T. Barton, C. Clements, A.I. Dell, H.S Greig, C.D.G. Harley, P. Kratina, K.S. McCann, T.D Tunney, D.A. Vasseur and M.I. O’Connor. 2015. The Body Size Dependence of Trophic Cascades. American Naturalist 185: 354-366.
Vasseur, D.A., Fox, J.W., Gonzalez, A., Adrian, R., Beisner, B.E., Helmus, M.R., Johnson, C., Kratina, P., Kremer, C., de Mazancourt, C., Miller, E., Nelson, W.A., Paterson, M., Rusak, J.A., Shurin, J.B. and Steiner, C.F. 2014. Synchronous dynamics of zooplankton competitors prevail in temperate lake ecosystems. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B 281; 20140633.
Gilbert, B., Tunney, T.D. McCann, K.S., DeLong, J.P., Vasseur, D.A. Savage, V., Shurin, J.B., Dell, A.I., Barton, B.T., Harley, C.D.G., Kharouba, H.M., Kratina, P., Blanchard, J.L., Clements, C., Winder, M., Greig, H.S. and M.I. O’Connor. A bioenergetic framework for the temperature dependence of trophic interactions. 2014. Ecology Letters 17: 902-914.
Shurin, J.B., S. Mandal & R.L. Abbott. 2014. Trait diversity enhances yield in algal biofuel assemblages. Journal of Applied Ecology 51: 603-611.
Shurin, J.B., R.L. Abbott, M.S. Deal, G.T. Kwan, E. Litchman, R. McBride, S. Mandal, V.H. Smith. 2013. Industrial-strength ecology: Tradeoffs and opportunities in algal biofuel production. Ecology Letters 16: 1393-1404.
Dick, S.*, J.B. Shurin and E.B. Taylor. 2014. Replicate Divergence Between and Within Sounds in a Marine Fish: the Copper Rockfish (Sebastes caurinus). Molecular Ecology 23: 575–590.
Hausch, S.J.*, B. Matthews and J.B. Shurin. Phenotypic variability of body shape in a radiation of Diaptomus copepods. PLoS ONE e68272
Stewart, R.I.A., M. Dossena, D.A. Bohan, E. Jeppesen, R.L. Kordas, M.E. Ledger, M. Meerhoff, B. Moss, C. Mulder, J.B. Shurin, B. Suttle, R. Thompson, M. Trimmer, G. Woodward. 2013. Mesocosm experiments in ecological climate change research. Advances in Ecological Research 48:71-181.
Des Roches, S., L.J. Harmon, J.B. Shurin, D. Schluter. 2013. Ecological and evolutionary effects of stickleback on community structure. PLoS ONE 8: e59644.
Atwood, T.B., E. Hammill, H.S. Greig, P. Kratina, J.B. Shurin, D.S. Srivastava and J.S. Richardson. 2013. Predators reduce CO2 emissions from freshwater ecosystems. Nature Geoscience 6: 191-194. Featured in Science News and New Scientist.
Declerck, S.A.J., C. Winter, J.B. Shurin, C.A. Suttle and B. Matthews. 2013. Effects of patch connectivity and heterogeneity on metacommunity structure of planktonic bacteria and viruses. ISME- International Society for Microbial Ecology 7: 533–542.
Shurin, J.B., J.L. Clasen, H.S. Greig, P. Kratina and P.L. Thompson*. 2012. Warming shifts top-down and bottom-up control of pond food web structure and function. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B- Biological Sciences 367: 3008-3017.
Ingram, T.*, L.J. Harmon and J.B. Shurin. 2012. When should we expect early bursts of trait evolution in comparative data? Predictions from an evolutionary food web model. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25: 1902-1910.
Kratina, P., H.S. Greig, P.L.* Thompson, T. Carvahlo-Pereira, and J.B.Shurin. 2012. Warming modifies trophic cascades and eutrophication in experimental freshwater communities. Ecology 93: 1421-1430.
Shurin, J.B. Top-Down and Bottom-Up Regulation of Communities. 2012. In Oxford Bibliographies Online: Ecology. Ed. David Gibson. New York: Oxford University Press.
Greig, H.S., P.Kratina, P.L. Thompson*, W.J. Palen, J.S. Richardson, J.B. Shurin. 2012. Warming, eutrophication, and predator loss amplify subsidies between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Global Change Biology 18: 504-514.
Thompson, P.L* and J.B. Shurin. 2011. Regional zooplankton biodiversity provides limited buffering of pond ecosystems against climate change. Journal of Animal Ecology 81: 251-259. Featured as Recommended in Faculty of 1000.
Matthews, B., S. Hausch*, C. Winter, C.A. Suttle and J.B. Shurin. 2011. Contrasting ecosystem effects of phenotypically similar copepods. PLoS ONE 6: E26700.
White, L.F.* and J.B. Shurin. 2011. Density dependent effects of an exotic marine macroalga on native community diversity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 405: 111-119.
Harpole, W. S., J.T. Ngai*, E.E. Cleland, E.W. Seabloom, E.T. Borer, M.E.S. Bracken, J.J. Elser, D.S. Gruner, H. Hillebrand, J.B. Shurin, J.E. Smith. 2011. Nutrient co-limitation of primary producer communities. Ecology Letters 14:852-862.
Estes, J.A., J. Terborgh, J.S. Brashares, M.E. Power, J. Berger, W.J. Bond, S.R. Carpenter, T. Essington, R.D. Holt, J.B.C. Jackson, R.J. Marquis, L. Oksanen, T. Oksanen, R.T. Paine, E.K. Pikitch, W.J. Ripple, S.A. Sandin, M. Scheffer, T.W. Schoener, J.B. Shurin, A.R.E. Sinclair, M.E. Soulé, R. Virtanen, D.A. Wardle. 2011. Trophic downgrading of planet Earth. Science, 333: 301-306. Featured as a Must Read and Exceptional in Faculty of 1000 with an article factor of 14.
Wood, S.A.*, S.A. Lilley, D.R. Schiel and J.B. Shurin. 2010. Organismal traits are more important than environment for species interactions in the intertidal zone. Ecology Letters 13: 1160-1171. Featured as a Must Read in Faculty of 1000.
Shurin, J.B., M. Winder, R. Adrian, W.B. Keller, B. Matthews, A.M. Paterson, M.J. Paterson, B. Pinel-Alloul, J.A. Rusak, and N.D. Yan. 2010. Environmental stability and lake zooplankton diversity- Contrasting effects of chemical and thermal variability. Ecology Letters 13: 453-463. Featured in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 8:64.
Shurin, J.B., R.W. Markel* and B. Matthews. 2010. Comparing trophic cascades across ecosystems. P. 319-336 in Trophic Cascades, J.A. Estes and J. Terborgh, eds, Island Press.
Ingram, T.* and J.B. Shurin. 2009. Trait-based assembly and phylogenetic structure in northeast Pacific rockfish assemblages. Ecology 90: 2444-2453.
Ingram, T.*, L.J. Harmon and J.B. Shurin. 2009. Niche evolution, trophic structure and species turnover in model food webs. American Naturalist 174: 56-67.
Hillebrand, H., E.T. Borer, M.E.S. Bracken, B.J. Cardinale, J. Cebrian, E.E. Cleland, J.J. Elser, D.S. Gruner, W.S. Harpole, J.T. Ngai*, S.Sandin, E.W. Seabloom, J.B. Shurin, J.E. Smith, and M.D. Smith. 2009. Herbivore metabolism and stoichiometry each constrain herbivory at different organizational scales across ecosystems. Ecology Letters 12: 516-527. Featured cover photo article.
Harmon, L.J.$, B. Matthews$, S. Des Roches*, J.M. Chase, J.B. Shurin, D. Schluter. 2009. Speciation and specialization of threespine stickleback affect ecosystem function. Nature 458: 1167-1170. $These authors contributed equally to the work. Featured as a Must Read in Faculty of 1000, in Nature- News and Views and Nature- Making the paper.
Cebrian, J.$, J.B. Shurin$, E.T. Borer, B.J. Cardinale, J.T. Ngai*, M.D. Smith and W.F. Fagan. 2009. Producer nutritional quality controls ecosystem trophic structure. Public Library of Science ONE 4: e4929. $These authors contributed equally to the work. Featured as a Must Read in Faculty of 1000.
Thompson, R., M. Hemberg, B.M. Starzomski and J.B. Shurin. 2009. The ubiquity of omnivory. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 30: 761-764.
Shurin, J.B., K. Cottenie and H. Hillebrand. 2009. Spatial autocorrelation and dispersal limitation in freshwater organisms. Oecologia 159: 151-159.
Elser, J.J., M.E.S. Bracken, E.E. Cleland, D.S. Gruner, W.S. Harpole, H. Hillebrand, J.T. Ngai*, E.W. Seabloom, J.B. Shurin, J.E. Smith. 2007. Global analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of primary producers in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. Ecology Letters 10: 1135-1142. Featured in Nature- News and Views 449:1000-1, on Thomson-Reuters ScienceWatch, and a Must Read in Faculty of 1000.
Hillebrand, H., D.S. Gruner, M.E. Bracken, E.E. Cleland, J.J. Elser, W.S. Harpole, J.T. Ngai*, E.W. Seabloom, J.B. Shurin, and J.E. Smith. 2007. Consumer versus resource control of producer diversity depends on ecosystem type and producer community structure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 104: 10904-10909. Featured in Faculty of 1000.
White, L.B.* and J.B. Shurin. 2007. Diversity effects on invasion vary with life history stage in marine macroalgae. Oikos 116: 1193-1203.
Hall, S.R., J.B. Shurin, S. Diehl and R.M Nisbet. 2007. Food quality, nutrient limitation of secondary production, and the strength of trophic cascades. Oikos 116: 1128-1143.
Longmuir, A.*, J.B. Shurin and J. Clasen*. 2007. Independent gradients of producer, consumer and microbial diversity in lake plankton. Ecology 88: 1663-1674. Featured cover photo article.
Shurin, J.B. 2007. How is diversity related to species turnover through time? Oikos 116: 957-965.
Thompson, R., M. Hemberg*, B. Starzomski*, and J.B. Shurin. 2007. Trophic levels and trophic tangles: the prevalence of omnivory in real food webs. Ecology 88: 612-617.
Shurin, J.B., S.E. Arnott, H. Hillebrand, A. Longmuir*, B. Pinel-Alloul, M. Winder, and N.D. Yan. 2007. Diversity-stability relationship depends on latitude in zooplankton. Ecology Letters 10: 127:134.
Shurin, J.B. 2006. News and Views: A pitcher of things to come. Nature 443: 399-400.
Shurin, J.B., D.S. Gruner and H. Hillebrand. 2006. All wet or dried up? Real differences between aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B 273: 1-9. Featured in Faculty of 1000.
Smith, S.* and J.B. Shurin. 2006. What do invasions tell us about saturation? Chapter in Conceptual Ecology and Invasions Biology, ed. M. Cadotte, S. McMahon, and T. Fukami, Springer.
Shurin, J.B. and E.W. Seabloom. 2005. The strength of trophic cascades across ecosystems: Predictions from allometry and energetics. Journal of Animal Ecology 74: 1029-1038.
Havel, J.E., J.B. Shurin and J.R. Jones. 2005. Biotic and abiotic constraints on spread of the exotic cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi (Sars). Ecoscience 12: 376-385.
Hillebrand, H. and J.B. Shurin. 2005. Biodiversity and aquatic food webs. P. 184-197 in Aquatic Food Webs, eds. A. Belgrano, U.M. Scharler, J. Dunne and R.E. Ulanowicz. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Shurin, J.B. and D.S. Srivastava. 2005. New perspectives on local and regional diversity: beyond saturation. Chapter in Metacommunities, ed. M. Holyoak, R. Holt and M. Leibold, University of Chicago Press, p. 399-417.
Chase, J.M., P. Amarasekare, K. Cottenie, A. Gonzalez, R. Holt, M. Holyoak, M. Hoopes, R. Law, M. Leibold, M. Loreau, N. Mouquet, J.B. Shurin, and D. Tilman. 2005. Towards a really unified theory for metacommunities. Chapter in Metacommunities, ed. M. Holyoak, R. Holt and M. Leibold, University of Chicago Press, p. 335-354.
Borer, E.T., E.W. Seabloom, J.B. Shurin, K. Anderson, C.A. Blanchette, B.R. Broitman, S.D. Cooper, and B. Halpern. 2005. What determines the strength of a trophic cascade? Ecology 86: 528-537.
Halpern, B.S., E.T. Borer, E.W. Seabloom and J.B. Shurin. 2005. Stabilizing and destabilizing effects of species and trophic diversity in multi-trophic systems. Ecology Letters 8:189-194.
Leibold, M. A., M. Holyoak, N. Mouquet, P. Amarasekare, J.M. Chase, M. Hoopes, R. Holt, J.B. Shurin, R. Law, D. Tilman, M. Loreau, and A. Gonzalez. 2004. The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology. Ecology Letters 7: 601-613.
Havel, J.E., and J.B. Shurin. 2004. Mechanisms, effects and scales of dispersal in freshwater zooplankton. Limnology and Oceanography 49: 1229-1238.
Shurin, J.B., P. Amarasekare, J.M. Chase, R.D. Holt, M.F. Hoopes and M.A. Leibold. 2004. Alternative stable states and regional community structure. Journal of Theoretical Biology 227: 359-368.
Cohen, G.M.* and J.B. Shurin. 2003. Scale-dependence and mechanisms of dispersal in freshwater zooplankton. Oikos 103: 603-617.
Wilson, W.G., P. Lundberg, D. Vasquez, J.B. Shurin, M.D. Smith, W. Langford, K.L. Gross and G.G. Mittelbach. 2003. Biodiversity and species interactions: Extending Lotka-Volterra community theory. Ecology Letters, 6: 944-952.
Shurin, J.B. and J.E. Havel. 2002. Hydrologic connections and overland dispersal in an exotic freshwater crustacean. Biological Invasions 4: 431-439.
Shurin, J.B., E.T. Borer, E.W. Seabloom, K. Anderson, C.A. Blanchette, B.R. Broitman, S.D. Cooper, and B. Halpern. 2002. A cross-ecosystem comparison of the strength of trophic cascades. Ecology Letters 5: 785-791. *Highlighted in Science’s Editor’s Choice (Science 298: 1517).
Havel, J.E., J.B. Shurin and J.R. Jones. 2002. Estimating dispersal from patterns of spread: Spatial and local control of lake invasions. Ecology 83: 3306-3318.
Borer, E.T., K.A. Anderson, C.A. Blanchette, B.R. Broitman, S.D. Cooper, B. Halpern, E.W. Seabloom, and J.B. Shurin. 2002. Topological approaches to food web analyses: a few modifications may improve our insights. Oikos 99: 397-401.
Shurin, J.B and E.G. Allen. 2001. Effects of competition, predation, dispersal on local and regional species richness. American Naturalist 158: 624-637.
Shurin, J.B. 2001. Interactive effects of predation and dispersal on zooplankton communities. Ecology 82: 3404-3416.
Shurin, J.B., S.E. Gergel, D.M. Kaufman, D.M. Post, E.W. Seabloom, and J. Williams. 2001. Letter: In defense of ecology. The Scientist 15: 6.
Shurin, J.B. 2000. Dispersal limitation, invasion resistance, and the structure of pond zooplankton communities. Ecology 81: 3074-3086. *Winner of 2002 Thomas M. Frost Award for Excellence in Graduate Research, Ecological Society of America Aquatic Section.
Shurin, J.B., J.E. Havel, M.A. Leibold and B. Pinel-Alloul. 2000. Local and regional zooplankton species richness: A scale-independent test for saturation. Ecology 81: 3062-3073.
Chase, J.M., M.A. Leibold, A.L. Downing, and J.B. Shurin. 2000. The effects of productivity, herbivory, and plant species turnover in grassland food webs. Ecology 81: 2485-2497.
Leibold, M.A., J.M. Chase, J.B. Shurin and A.L. Downing. 1997. Species turnover and the regulation of trophic structure. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28: 467-494.
Shurin, J.B. and S.I. Dodson. 1997. Effects of cyanobacteria and nonylphenol on environmental sex determination and development in Daphnia. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16(6): 1269-1276.